Monday, March 30, 2020

Ironclad Ships Essays - Casemate Ironclad, Ironclad Warship

Ironclad Ships The Battle of Hampton Roads changed the course of naval history. This battle marked the first time that two ironclad warships engaged in ship to ship combat. However the USS Monitor and Popov and the Novgorod. These circular monitors were impossible to control and just drifted around (Greene 351-356). The civil wars in South America also saw widespread use of ironclad warships, especially in Chile and Brazil. The revolutionaries of Peru purchased unfinished Confederate ironclads from England and used them in their war for independence against Spain (Greene 263-274). The use of ironclad warships predated the United States Civil War. In 1592 the Korean Admiral Yi-sun designed an ? ? ? ? ? ? W d @ K n w ? ? ) ? ? ? ? {w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{ ? ? ? ? & . % + ; B ? , ? ? ? ? S ^ {w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{ ^ b j m u ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ) c k ? ? ? 4 * I {w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{ I Q W _ ? ? e m ? ? ? ? 7 ? h p ? ? {w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ! * : B ? ? f p ? ? ? ? ? ? ? {w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{ ? ? ? G ! $ * D Q ? ? ? ? : G T! ]! ' &' J' W' s' {' h* w* ?+ , , , ?- {w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{w{ ? c D) ?- ?- qqjjj```` ? ? ? ?! ^ I ? ? %& ?- \ ] ^ _ ` a b ?- c Times New Roman ? p ?= ?/ ? 8 ?= ?/ ? 8 d ?uSu, u, ? T? ? ?- 5 2 . .2 82 82 82 82 ?=?/ ? 8 d 82 ? ?- t 3 82 J2 T The Battle of Hampton Roads changed the course of naval history. This battle marked the first time that two ironclad warships engaged in ship to ship combat. However the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia were not the first ironclad warships that were produced. The use of ironclad warships predated the United States Civil War. In 1592 the Korean Admiral Yi-sun designed and produced an ironclad warship to counter the large Japanese fleet that was attacking Korea. This ship was designed to repel the Japanese arrows and bullets that were fired at the ship. This ship played key roles in many major victories for the Korean Navy. Steam power was used in warships for the first time in 1850 by the French. The Napoleon was the first warship built with steam power used as its main power. The British followed suit later that year with the HMS Agamemnon. Ship builders believed that steam power would provide enough energy to power ironclad warships. When the Crimean War began in 1853 the Allied navies (Britain and France) saw the need for ironclad warships. The French developed a steam powered ironclad ?battery?. These batteries were little more than floating ships with cannons and iron armor. The armor was brittle and often shattered after two direct h its. The conditions on these batteries were poor and they only saw limited action. The British developed similar batteries but they were only used in the Battle of Kinburn. The two navies began developing true ironclads after the Crimean war. The French produced the Gloire in 1858 and the British followed with the HMS Warrior. The Russians joined in with the Prevenetz in 1859. These were the first true ironclads (Greene 15-35). The beginning of the Civil War in the United States began concerted efforts by both sides to develop ironclad warships. The Confederate States of America first saw the need for ironclad ships at the onset of hostilities in 1861. Stephen Mallory, the Secretary of the Confederate Navy, saw the need for a southern ironclad and ordered one to be built. The Union Navy had abandoned Gosport Navy Yard in Virginia on April 20, 1861, the day after Virginia's order of secession. The major steam frigate USS Merrimack was scuttled and left behind. The Confederates immediately raised the sunken ship and renamed it CSS Virgina, this

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Free Essays on The Missil Crisis In Cuba

The mayor confrontation between the United States and Soviet Union did not happened in Europe. It started in the Caribbean. It took place during the call of the â€Å"Missile Crisis† in Cuba in October 1962. The Cuban missile crisis was the closest the world ever came to nuclear war. The United States’ armed forces were at their highest state of quickness ever. Soviet Union commanders in Cuba were prepared to use battlefield and nuclear weapons to defend the island in case it was invaded. Thanks to two brave men, President John F. Kennedy and Premier Nikita Khrushchev, who were brave enough to prevent the war. The center of the conflict started when the Soviet Union established a base of military operations and the heart of oxidant. This step generated the conflicts between super potential. One side was the United States and the other side was the Soviet Union and China. The crisis almost became World War 3 and the 1st nuclear War. This would have produced a catastrophe that would of affected the people who lived in Cuba. Therefore the first objective was to disappear any eventual atomic bombing. In 1961 Fidel Castro proclaimed officially a social character of his government. With this he made a radical tour of the original program of the Cuban revolution. At the same time, he tried to establish a social soviet. This way they provided to Cuba enormous economic requirements, military sources, and an all kinds of military weapons including nuclear missiles. They initiated the construction in Cuba of the ramps to throw missiles that are capable to land in the southern part of the United States in minutes. The main object of the Soviet Union was to modified and balance the atomic weapons displayed in the war, till then inconvenient for the Russ. The crisis began on October 15,1962 for the United States, when they examinant photographs reveled Soviet missiles under construction in Cuba. The next day they informed president... Free Essays on The Missil Crisis In Cuba Free Essays on The Missil Crisis In Cuba The mayor confrontation between the United States and Soviet Union did not happened in Europe. It started in the Caribbean. It took place during the call of the â€Å"Missile Crisis† in Cuba in October 1962. The Cuban missile crisis was the closest the world ever came to nuclear war. The United States’ armed forces were at their highest state of quickness ever. Soviet Union commanders in Cuba were prepared to use battlefield and nuclear weapons to defend the island in case it was invaded. Thanks to two brave men, President John F. Kennedy and Premier Nikita Khrushchev, who were brave enough to prevent the war. The center of the conflict started when the Soviet Union established a base of military operations and the heart of oxidant. This step generated the conflicts between super potential. One side was the United States and the other side was the Soviet Union and China. The crisis almost became World War 3 and the 1st nuclear War. This would have produced a catastrophe that would of affected the people who lived in Cuba. Therefore the first objective was to disappear any eventual atomic bombing. In 1961 Fidel Castro proclaimed officially a social character of his government. With this he made a radical tour of the original program of the Cuban revolution. At the same time, he tried to establish a social soviet. This way they provided to Cuba enormous economic requirements, military sources, and an all kinds of military weapons including nuclear missiles. They initiated the construction in Cuba of the ramps to throw missiles that are capable to land in the southern part of the United States in minutes. The main object of the Soviet Union was to modified and balance the atomic weapons displayed in the war, till then inconvenient for the Russ. The crisis began on October 15,1962 for the United States, when they examinant photographs reveled Soviet missiles under construction in Cuba. The next day they informed president...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Global Management Systems Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Global Management Systems - Research Paper Example The traditional management systems often involved a constricted system that revolved around the managerial acumen and abilities of the top managers. The top managers exclusively were in charge of the roles of strategy development, goal-setting, monitoring and evaluating processes, crisis management and other processes that largely relate to the process of systems management. The traditional system was generally tedious, cumbersome and open to abuse and inefficiencies relating to some possible limitations on the part of the management. Moreover, such management systems lay structural impediments of growth and expansion for the companies and organizations. These organizations often miss the synergies, skills, and talents that can be found only in the international markets.The involvement of global management systems has made it possible for companies and organizations to engage specialized skills and resources that were beyond their individual systems. Global management systems have de signed knowledge-based products and systems that seek to address some of the major challenges that have been affecting organizations. It might help consider the evolution of these systems in terms of the basic structural challenges that have affected systems of productions of organizations around the globe. Organizations are no longer constrained in terms of the geographical limits of which they may be superior, as the traditional logistical barriers have been eliminated through the various innovations and knowledge-based developments. (Bagad, 2009). The

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

The Issue of Leadership in Christianity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

The Issue of Leadership in Christianity - Essay Example Leadership and vision in Christianity is consistent with this view and comprised of many secular beliefs relative to leadership components including understanding effective communications and the ability to persuasively to motivate. In essence, it’s the capability to lead organizations and individuals, to accomplish specific goals and objectives. As spiritual restorationism became a reality, the concept is clear that early Church leaders formed the basis of diverse protestant denominations different from what many may believe today were the original teachings of Jesus Christ. To get a sense of the differentiation of dissenting groups, several models have been reviewed during the course of this study including the belief that the Pope was Christ’s vicar, the Episcopal view (bishops as leaders), the Presbyterians who lead through â€Å"elders† of the congregation, the Congregationalist who make up rules unique to individual congregations, and The Evangelicals who are open about salvation even without church structure. As a result of these differing views, ultimately the various groups separated themselves from other each other, although in some cases this was over relatively small theological issues. Often differentiation was memorialized in confessionals composed as a roadmap for followers, which outlined the belief system and the code believers should follow. Confessionals were often fairly similar because they were based on the same historical tenants and basic religious beliefs. There is a tremendous amount of historical information associated with these unique groups, and it’s interesting to look at the similarities and differences. As a component of this review two major factions, the Episcopal and the Presbyterian factions, were selected from the list selected to compare and contrast relative to leadership style and structure. The Episcopal religion is based on a leadership system

Monday, January 27, 2020

Impact of Industrialisation of Wales

Impact of Industrialisation of Wales The industrialisation of Wales has been described as acting as a cauldron of rebirth for the Welsh language. Discuss this statement. Industrialisation in Wales made a large impact on many different parts of Welsh life and culture. The Welsh language, which throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries faced many challenges, was not excluded from this; it is clear to many that industrialisation had a large impact on the Welsh language as a whole during this period. The question that remains, however, is whether the Welsh language was positively affected by industrialisation or not. While it would be best to look at individual provenances along with Wales as a whole, by looking at the country as a whole it is argued that the Welsh language faced hardships. This was due to the fact that overall the number of native Welsh speakers rapidly declined between 1800 and 1911. In 1891, 54.5 percent of the Welsh population could speak Welsh, however this percentage dropped to 44.6 per cent by 1911.[1] This essay shall debate whether industrialisation was indeed a cauldron of rebirth for the Welsh language or whether it d amaged the Welsh language instead, as well as look at other factors that could, in a way, be described as acting as a cauldron of rebirth. It is debated amongst historians whether industrialisation helped the Welsh language flourish during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries or whether it contributed to the gradual decline in native Welsh speakers. Brinley Thomas argues that a large number of people migrated to the south to work in coal mines, though they brought up Welsh-speaking families.[2] Due to this it can be proposed that to some extent industrialisation did, in fact, help the Welsh-language, acting as a cauldron of rebirth. Geraint Jenkins counter-argues this view by stating that as people migrated to the south to work in coal mines, many communities lost thousands of Welsh-speaking people.[3] From this is can be assumed that Jenkins says that as many communities lost so many Welsh-speakers, it therefore means that the Welsh language began to decline, meaning that the industrialisation of Wales was not acting as a cauldron of rebirth for the Welsh language. Regardless, it appears that to many historians that industrialisation had some effect on the Welsh language, though it remains unclear whether this effect was predominantly good or bad. Industrialisation played a key role in the development and modernisation of Great Britain throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Wales was no exception to this, and saw a large surge in industry, especially in the south. Many raw materials such as coal were seen as an important resource that would help the British empire and British economy grow and flourish. Due to this, migration to the south and other industrialised areas on Wales was fairly common. Thomas proposes that the Welsh language was saved by industrialisation during this period rather than damaged by it.[4] This is due to the fact that many families who had migrated to the industrialised areas brought up their children to speak Welsh. Thomas also notes that nearly 900,000 Welsh-speaking people were recorded in the 1891 census. 70 per cent of these people were living in the five counties that were the most deeply affected by industrialization Carmarthenshire, Flintshire, Glamorgan, Caernarfonshire, and Denbi ghshire.[5] Despite this, it is important to note that each town in the south and other industrialised areas had different percentages of those who could speak Welsh. Pontardawe saw 67 per cent of its population speaking only Welsh, no English, whilst Cardiff saw only 1.9 per cent of its population being able to speak Welsh.[6] With this in mind, there appears to be a distinct pattern; town that were closer to the coast and could be used as ports appeared to have less Welsh-speakers inhabiting it than in areas further away, such as areas with coal. Gwenfair and Williams support this point by stating that Cardiff focused mainly on exports.[7] Therefore it can be argued that while industrialisation helped the Welsh language in some areas, in others it continued to struggle, meaning that it cannot rightfully be described as an acting cauldron of rebirth. Continuing from the previous point, the industrialisation of Wales saw an influx of many foreigners. While many of these foreigners came from England in the search for work, others travelled from Ireland and even Italy in order to live and work in Wales.[8] When people migrate many of them bring their language and culture with them, meaning that it is highly probable that Welsh towns that saw a large amount of migrants had to adapt to accommodate these new languages and cultures. Merthyr had 12 per cent of its population migrate from outside Wales in the 1840s, with Pontypool seeing more than 30 per cent of its population coming from outside Wales.[9] Looking at Pontypool in particular, 89.7 per cent of its population could speak English but no Welsh; this indicates that migrants had quite the influence over Pontypool as English became the predominant language in that region, especially the English. As well as this, many Welsh-born people migrated outside of Wales, including America, due to industrialization. The 1891 American census revealed that 100,079 Welsh people lived in the United States.[10] With these people moving to an English-speaking nation, it is logical that they would learn and speak English in order to get the best opportunities; this would mean that the number of Welsh-speaking people most likely declined as parents saw no need to teach their children Welsh in a foreign country. This view is contradicted by Thomas, however, who states that a vast majority of immigration during this period was Welshmen moving to the north or south in order to look for work in coalmines or factories.[11] With industrialisation having an impact on migration as a whole, it is safe to say that migration did not necessarily help the Welsh language, instead making the numbers of those who spoke it decline. Welsh education saw many changes, some of them quite dramatic, and did have an overall effect on the Welsh language in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. As education in Wales was controlled by the English government at the time, the English language was push in many schools throughout Wales. This issue was brought up in the Treachery of the Blue Books in 1847 along with other problems the Welsh education system was facing at the time. The Education Act of 1870 made matters worse, especially in weak Welsh-speaking areas, as English was further pushed in schools. Children could no longer learn Welsh in schools, instead having to rely on parents as well as Sunday schools in order to learn the language properly. In some areas, this meant that Welsh quickly became a minority language. As Welsh was no longer taught in schools, this meant that the survival of the Welsh language depended on parents, Sunday schools and preachers who passed the language on to younger generations.[12] Th e Education Act of 1870 had an impact on the whole of Wales, especially in the south. This can be seen by how in Cardiff in 1847, there were ninety-three schools that taught in English; none taught in only Welsh.[13] Attitudes towards education in Wales did not help either. In his book Welsh Political and Educational Leaders in the Victorian Era, Morgan stated that Lord Aberdareà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ in 1885, declared thatà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ he had come to the conclusion that the teaching of Welsh should not be made compulsory.[14] This attitude towards education in Wales would therefore mean that, to some, the Welsh language should survive through family rather than education. This suggests that the change in education did not have a positive effect on the Welsh language, and that it cannot be described as acting as a cauldron of rebirth like industrialisation and migration can. As previously mentioned, the Welsh language appeared to rely on parents and religion in order to survive in predominantly English-speaking areas. As services were carried out in Welsh and Sunday schools taught Welsh children how to speak and read Welsh, it can be argued that religion in Wales can therefore be described as acting as a cauldron of rebirth for the Welsh language. Nonconformity was the main religion in Wales, meaning that a vast majority of services were in Welsh. However, it was rumoured that Nonconformist meetings practiced illicit sex, which presented the idea that Welsh women were therefore unchaste.[15] This meant that Welsh-speakers would face much prejudice from English-speakers, which may have prompted some to change religion and therefore slowly stop speaking Welsh. Despite this, it can be proposed that the Welsh language survived due to Sunday schools, which is stated by D. Yorath. Yorath states that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ the influence of the Welsh pulpit and Sunday schools will certainly prevent it becoming extinct in a letter to the editor of the South Wales Daily News, October 1897. From this it is somewhat clear how much of an influence religion had on the Welsh language, which arguably gives it the right to be described as acting as a cauldron of rebirth for the Welsh language. Prejudice towards Welsh-speakers, however, appeared to be quite common, especially in industrial areas were English tended to be the preferred language by many. This therefore created a stigma surrounding the Welsh language, which negatively impacted it. It can be argued that this stigma is what caused some areas of Welsh society to almost neglect the Welsh language. Much like with many factors, the attitude that society has towards a particular area impacts greatly how well it does or not. Many parents appeared to be put off by the idea of their child speaking Welsh due to how it was seen as a lazy language. This led to many middle-class families mainly speaking English, only choosing to speak Welsh when it was deemed necessary.[16] Welsh was seen as the language for the working class and the lower-middle class, with Davies pointing out that upper-class Welsh-speaking families were non-existent in the nineteenth century.[17] English was seen as the language of business by many, which meant that in order to receive a good paying job speaking English was necessary. Many middle-class families therefore saw no need to teach their children Welsh; there was no need to learn a language that appeared to have very little importance in the wider world. Interestingly, Morgan states that it was in fact middle-class Welshmen who pushed for the compulsory tea ching of Welsh in schools.[18] This is most likely due to the increase in Welsh nationalism during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Some Welshmen felt as though an identity for Wales was needed, one that would be separate from England, which resulted in the revival of the Eisteddfodau in the late eighteenth century; Morgan even states that The Victorian Era is canonised because it is the era in which the glory of modern Welsh Nationality began to shine.[19] Therefore, from this it can be assumed that the demand for Welsh to be taught in schools was due to nationalism in Wales during this period. Although society did play a key role in ensuring the survival of the Welsh language, it cannot be rightfully described as acting as a cauldron for rebirth due to the fact that society did appear to be torn during this period on whether or not the Welsh language was still important. Whilst many nationalists wanted the Welsh language to continue to thrive, others preferred to speak Eng lish as it meant that they had many more opportunities in the wider world. The statement that industrialisation can be described as acting as a cauldron of rebirth for the Welsh language is true to come extent. It is important to note that while it can be argued that the Welsh language declined due to industrialisation, the Welsh language has still survived to this day and, in some areas, even grew stronger due to industrialisation. However, it should be recognised that not only industrialisation had a positive impact on the Welsh language. Migration, which increased mainly due to industrialisation in south Wales, and religion also played a key role in helping the Welsh language survive. Due to this it is safe to assume that these three factors can all be described as acting as a cauldron of rebirth. Some historians, such as Thomas, support this statement and believe that industrialisation as a whole had a positive effect on the Welsh language. Not one factor helped revive the Welsh language; it would be better to say that many different factors contributed to the survival of the Welsh language. Therefore, due to the fact that the Welsh language still thrives in many Welsh communities today, industrialisation was one factor that was a cauldron of rebirth for the Welsh language. Bibliography: Primary sources: Jones, Dot. Statistical Evidence Relating to the Welsh Language 1801-1911. Cardiff, 1998. Morgan, J. Vyrnwy. Welsh Political and Educational Leaders in the Victorian Era. London 1908. Yorath, D. Writing to the Editor of the South Wales Daily News, 27th October 1897. (http://newspapers.library.wales) Secondary Sources: Brinley, Thomas. The Industrial Revolution and the Atlantic Economy. USA and Canada, 1993. Davies, Cennard. The Welsh Language: The story of Britains oldest living language. Talybont, 2006. Davies, Janet. The Welsh Language. Cardiff, 1988. Davies, Janet. The Welsh Language: A History. Cardiff, 2014. Davies, Russell. Hope and Heartbreak. Cardiff, 2005. Davies, Russell. People, Places Passion. Cardiff, 2015. Jenkins, Geraint H. Language and Community in the Nineteenth Century. Cardiff, 1998. Jenkins, Geraint H. The Welsh Language before the Industrial Revolution. Cardiff, 1997. Parry, Gwenfair and Williams, Mari A. The Welsh Language and the 1891 Census. Cardiff, 1999. [1] Jones, Dot. Statistical Evidence Relating to the Welsh Language 1801-1911, p. 225. [2] Thomas, Brinley. The Industrial Revolution and the Atlantic Economy, p. 208. [3] Jenkins, Geraint. The Welsh Language and its Social Domains. p. 2. [4] Thomas, Brinley. The Industrial Revolution and the Atlantic Economy, p 209. [5] Thomas, Brinley. The Industrial Revolution and the Atlantic Economy, p. [à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦] [6] Jones, Dot. Statistical Evidence Relating to the Welsh Language 1801-1911, p. 226. [7] Parry, Gwenfair and Williams, Mari A. The Welsh Language and the 1891 Census, p.p. 54-55. [8] Davies, Russell. People, Places Passions, p. 25. [9] Davies, Janet. The Welsh Language: A History, p. 57. [10] Davies, Russell. People, Places Passions, p. 25. [11] Thomas, Brinley. The Welsh Language and the Atlantic Economy, p. 208. [12] Morgan, J. Vyrnwy. Welsh Political and Educational Leaders in the Victorian Era, p. 18. [13] Jones, Dot. Statistical Evidence Relating to the Welsh Language, p. 359. [14] Morgan, J. Vyrnwy. Welsh Political and Educational Leaders in the Victorian Era, p.p. 18-19. [15] Davies, Janet. The Welsh Language, p. 43. [16] Morgan, J. Vrynwy. Welsh Political and Educational Leaders in the Victorian Era, p. 16. [17] Davies, Janet. The Welsh Language, p. 41. [18] Morgan, J. Vrynwy. Welsh Political and Educational Leaders in the Victorian Era, p. 16. [19] Morgan, J Vrynwy. Welsh Political and Educational Leaders in the Victorian Era, p. 11.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

What is language

Describe the functions of language. (3) Explain the relevance/importance of English Language Studies. (4) use the knowledge gained to analyses a few texts. Candela et. Al. 2012: 1-2) By working through your tutorial matter (study guide and textbooks), you should be able to provide answers to these questions. What Is language? Language is â€Å"the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way. â€Å"l What is communication? Communication is â€Å"the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium. â€Å"2 In order to communicate (for people to understand one another) we need to use language in a structured manner. Consider the following sentences: ) I am happy because I ate chocolate. ) Chocolate I happy I because ate am. C) I ma yap succubae I tea teleological. 1 OFFS Why do you understand the first sentence? Why are the second and third sentences unintelligibl e? For meaningful communication to take place, we need to understand and apply the rules of the particular language we are studying. In this module, we learn about some of the rules which govern the English language. You will learn words, sentences and ideas that will help you to describe language. These words and ideas will be applied to real life situations where English is used.Consider how English is used in different situations: school, work, home and Twitter. You will begin to appreciate that language use varies from one context to another. As yourself the question; would you talk or write to your employer in the same way that you would address your friends? You will be introduced to the technical language terminology (such as â€Å"syntax†, â€Å"phonetics†, â€Å"phonology', â€Å"register†, â€Å"genre†, â€Å"text†, â€Å"semantics† and â€Å"pragmatics†) in order to study language. Since you do not generally use language i n isolation, we need to investigate how it is used in society.Remember that not everyone uses language in the same manner. For this reason, we need to learn varieties of language, dialects, standards, and attitudes to language. What is a text? If you refer to the dictionary, there are many definitions provided for â€Å"text†. For example, a â€Å"text† could refer to â€Å"a book or other written or printed work, regarded in terms of its content rather than its physical form. â€Å"3 In your study guide, we learn that â€Å"text† does not refer exclusively to written material. By text' we mean any piece of writing/language that hangs together from the ginning to the end.It has to have unity. Texts do not only have to be written. They can be spoken, e. G. The news that we hear on radio, or the news that we watch being broadcast on Television. A text can also be visual or audio-visual. Indeed, texts that are produced for television are audio-visual. Similarly, some written texts combine both the written and the visual, e. G. Newspaper reports. An art painting, such as, (Candela et. Al. , 2012: 3) Example of a text: Mona Lisa Leonardo dad Vinci Why do you think a painting can be regarded as a text? Provide other examples of texts. What is a domain?One definition for â€Å"domain† is â€Å"a specified sphere of activity or knowledge. â€Å"4 In your study guide, we learn that a â€Å"domain† does not refer exclusively to written Domain refers to social categories which locate all instances of language use in various situations or contexts. It can be the classroom domain, the sports field, a church, a political rally, etc. Notice that a classroom belongs to the larger sphere or domain of education, and a sermon in church belongs to the larger domain of religion. (Candela et. Al. , 2012: 4) Provide examples of a domain. Why is it important to identify a domain? ?Earlier, I provided a dictionary definition of language. On page 4 of your study guide, there are other definitions of language. In this module, language is viewed as a system of relating forms to functions. What does this mean? Firstly, can you identify the constituents of a sentence? I. E. Can you identify a verb, adverb, noun, adjective and so forth? Sentence. If you can identify these forms and how they function in a sentence, then you will begin to understand how they produce meaning in a text. Language is like a machine. If any parts are missing or are in the wrong place, the machine will not work.The following table from the study guide represents the language system: Language concept Meaning Phonetics The study of speech sounds. Phonology The study of the sound patterning system. Lexis The study of the actual words a writer or speaker chooses to use. Morphology The study of how words are formed. Syntax The study of how words combine to form sentences and the rules that govern the formations. Orthography Writing systems Semantics The study of meaning, how meaning is made and understood. Pragmatics The study of the use of language in communication – I. E. Sentences as used in contexts and situations. Discourse What is Language? The question above at first glance seemed easy to answer especially that we all have preconceived idea of what really language is. Language is talking. Noam Chomsky contends that more than any other characteristics, the possession of language distinguishes humans from animals (Chomsky). He argued that to understand humanity, one must understand the nature of language that makes us human. Language is not merely the ability to talk, rather, it is the capacity to produce sounds that signify certain meanings and to understand or interpret the sounds produced by others (Chomsky, p. 2). Thus, if one do not know the language, the words of that language will be mostly inconceivable. Language is more than speech as deaf people can produce languages without words just as normal persons generate and understand verbal languages. Language is what makes people understands each other, it is makes nations to unite for a common goals and it is the very foundation of progress and achievements. Thus understanding language is an essential task that every one must undertake. The world has perhaps thousands of different language that for most of us we can only speak five or the most is ten of these languages. Our limited knowledge of such languages is hindering us to achieve our goals to live in peace, unity, and, in cooperation with each other. Linguistic study therefore is an essential step towards this purpose of achieving, unity, cooperation, and mutual understanding with each other. Knowing what is Language Knowing a language involves knowing what sounds are in that language. It means that when one is not an English speaker he or she cannot substitute the pronunciation of a certain word to make it appear the word is pronounced in English. Taking for example the case presented by Chomsky, he noted that French people often pronounced the English word this and that as if they were spelled as â€Å"Zis† and â€Å"Zat. † knowing the sound system of the language therefore includes more than just the record of sounds. It involves knowing which sounds may start a word, end a word, and follow each other. According to Chomsky, knowing the sounds and the patterns of sounds amount to only one part of our linguistic knowledge. While it may be true that certain sequence of sounds denote certain concepts or meanings, if this is the case, knowing a language is not an easy task. One has to learn the sequences of sound if he or she has to learn language. That is, the words in that language which is also the sound sequences that are related to particular meanings. Thus, if one do not know a language, he or she cannot understand the meaning of the words or sentences of that language, because the relationship between speech and sounds is very subjective or an arbitrary one. Acquiring a language therefore needs one to identify that the sounds represented by the letters signify the concept. Sign Languages The relationship between form (sound) and the meaning (concept) of a word is true even in sign languages (Chomsky, p. 5). It is doubtful someone who is using Chinese sign language CSL) can comprehend the message of the one who is using American Sign Language (ASL), the same with the other. The author noted that not all the movements of the hands reveal the meaning of the gesture in sign languages. He point out that there is some sound symbolism in language, which is the words whose pronunciation suggest meanings. These words or sounds in a language sometimes imitate other sounds, however, although there may be some sounds that are similar to the objects or actions they refer to, the sounds differ from language to language because each language has its own particular system of language. However, Martin Hann emphasized that in understanding the message of the language both the sender and the receiver needs shared meanings of the gestures tones, and other communication symbols (Hann, M. . Hann pointed out that all the information and messages that we receive is being organized by our minds into a mental map that correspond to our perception of reality. The Importance of Sound Sequences To some extent, the author noted that some particular sound sequences seem to relate to a particular notion. Citing as example, the English words beginning gl such as glare, glint, gleam, glitter, glossy, glaze, glimmer, glimpse, and so forth, seemed to be related to sight. However, another set of words beginning with the same two letters, such as gladiator, glucose, glory, glutton, etc. ave nothing to do with sight. The point here is, it is important to know the sound sequences that relate to a particular idea. It does not matter for any one even if he or she can memorize all the 472,000 entries in the Webster dictionary unless he or she can learn the uses of each of those words. In other words, one cannot learn to speak foreign language by buying a dictionary and memorizing all the words, because one will not be able to construct even a simple sentences or phrase in a particular language that can be understand by a native speaker of that language. To understand the words in a language it is important to know where the words begin and where it ended. The Linguistic creativity As some one said, language is a gift of God to humanity. It is through language that humans communicate with each other regardless of race, and nationality. However, we cannot deny that there are language barriers to this communication. One of the most identified barriers is culture diversity. Portland State University, Sociology professor Sharon Lee noted that culture includes language and communication system and is often been used as alternative for culture (Lee, Sharon 2003). The language barrier caused by our cultural differences divides us in many aspect of our civilized social life because everyone has a unique perception and the ideas or the messages, and gestures being expressed differ from others. . Hence, the linguistic creativity is an essential initiative understanding language. Knowledge of language made it possible to combine sounds to construct words and to form phrases to make a sentence of the language. Knowing a language then, means being able to construct sentences and to understand sentences never heard before. This ability to construct and to understand sentences in a language is referred to as the creative aspect of language use. Linguistic creativity is a knowledge hungry process in which metaphors, poems, and jokes are just some of the typical forms. However, our creative ability is reflected not only by what we say, but it also includes our understanding of new sentences (Chomsky p. 9). Linguistic Knowledge and Performance The rise of linguistic in the 19th century has led to the formation of linguistic as a science, which means that linguistic is now a study. For Noam Chomsky Linguistic competence is a linguistic performance, which suggests that it is a process towards achieving such objective. For Chomsky, linguistic competence is the knowledge that we have of a certain language, or the ability to speak such language, which in turn becomes our linguistic performance. In other words linguistic competence and linguistic performance are basically inseparable. That is, When one is linguistic competent, it is a result of a long process of studying language. One’s mastery of language therefore as a result of such study is the linguistic performance. However, For Chomsky, linguistic competence is the unconscious knowledge of grammatical system. The linguistic system such as the sounds, the structures, words, and rules for putting them all collectively is acquired with no conscious awareness. Chomsky emphasized that we are unaware of the rules of language. Our knowledge of the rules of language is revealed by our ability to speak and understand, and to make judgment about the grammaticality of the sentences. Roumyana Slabakova and Silvina Montrul noted that grammatical competence is the unconscious, inherent knowledge that a speaker has about language. The Use of Grammar Grammar according to Chomsky has been defined as â€Å"that which authorized us either to converse a language or to talk about a language. † The way we use the word grammar differs from it most common usage. For Chomsky, grammar includes the knowledge that speaker have about the rules of the language for combining sounds into words which is called phonology while the rules of forming a word is called morphology and the rules for combining words into phrases and phrases into sentences is called syntax, the rule for giving meaning is called semantics. Linguistic competence in this regard is the ability to understand the nature of grammar, which then lead to the understanding to the understanding of the nature of the language. There are two ways linguist use grammar, first, grammar refers to the mental grammars that speakers have in their brain. The second is the model or the linguists’ description of this internalized grammar. Grammatical sentence according to Chomsky is when it conforms to the rules of the mental grammar and the so-called ungrammatical sentences are those who deviate from the rules in some ways. However, Chomsky pointed out that every language variety has its own grammar and no language is superior to any other language in linguistic sense. That is every grammar is equally complex, equally logical and capable of constructing an endless set of sentences to express any thought that can be equally expressed in any other language or dialect, too. It may me expressed using different words, phrases, and sentences, but what is important is that it can be expressed. However, not every grammarian shared that all grammar are equal as there are those who believed even from the earliest times that some account of language are better than others and that there are correct forms that the educated people should use in speaking and writing, and to change language is corruption. Among those who shared this view were the Alexandrians in the first century, the Arabic scholars at Basra, in the eight-century, and the combined batch of numerous English grammarians of the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Chomsky contends that these people wished to prescribed rather than describe the rules of grammar that paved the way to the rise of the writing of prescriptive grammars. This prescriptive grammar has become the language grammar of the upper classes. Conclusion Language is very important regardless of how others would view it. There are may be language for the elite rich and famous, or for the intellectuals, or even for the street people. What ever, language we use, the most important is we understand the people whom we are talking with. It is where that language is said to be a gift, for if we cannot understand others merely because they do not speak our language does not constitute is what is meant of misunderstanding. While I believe in the importance of leaning language but it should not be a hindrance towards understanding each other. However, for the improvement of our society and we must all strive to learn as much language as we can. In this way we can communicate well and can understand each other well. There is nothing wrong ig we utilized our ability to learn language instead, there plenty of benefits if we do so.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Interview Analysis for Humanities

Steven Paul â€Å"Steve† Jobs was an American entrepreneur and inventor, best known as the co-founder, chairman, and CEO of Apple Inc. Steve Jobs changed the world in technology as we all know and love. This interview is an information gathering type interview as the interviewer is gathering information on Steve Jobs and why he thinks his machine will change the future. I can also say that this interview is also a research interview as the interview provides helpful information to individuals and organizations that they can use to perform effectively based off of the time and era. This interview can still be used today. The interview provided regarding Steve Jobs is a research interview and information gathering interview because of the following purposes of the information gathering interview: 1. To gather information about a job or career area you are considering, so that you can make a sound decision as to whether or not you wish to pursue that career path; 2. To seek advice regarding how you can best prepare to enter or advance in this field/profession; 3. To ask your interviewee for assistance entering or advancing in the field/profession after you have determined that you actually wish to do so; and 4. To request referrals from the interviewee to others in the field/profession that might be valuable contacts for your career search Informational Interviews are a great source for gathering information about an occupation or an industry in which you are currently interested. It is ood to gather information about a job or career area you are considering so, that you can make a sound decision as to whether or not you wish to pursue that career path. For example, I am interested in technology/telecommunications. In choosing an interview to analyze, I wanted to find a role model that I have admired among the years. I chose Steve Jobs because I felt like he was the appropriate figure to obtain information on when it comes to technology. Here are some other key points of an informative interview: * Information interviewing is one of the most effective networking tools * An information interview will give you the awareness you need to choose or refine a career path, learn how to break in and find out if you have what it takes to succeed * It is a meeting that you arrange and lead, asking key questions to working professionals in your field * It gives you a chance to get the â€Å"inside scoop† by actually talking to people in that field * An Information Interview can help you decide which companies or work environments are the best fit for you * Although an information interview is not a job interview, it can help you cultivate your personal contacts and generate or learn of job leads In this interview, what do you think Steve Jobs purpose was? Do you think he was setting himself up for the success of his company? Do you think he knew he was going to become successful. I understand that the interviewees main goal was to find out how Steve Jobs machine was so different however, I felt as if I was there in the room with them understanding and gaining insight on what is to become of the future and technology. I wanted to ask some questions. In the interview chosen, Steve Jobs is conducting an interview regarding â€Å"the machine that change the world. † He is providing his explanation on how his machine is different from the others and how his machine through IBM will change the future. In the content of his message, he is providing detailed explanations as well as telling the who, what, when, and why, he thinks this will change the future. The interview is very informative because Mr. Jobs is fascinated about his project. In the content of his message, he delivers and answers all of the interviewers question with ease. He explains his creation in detail with detailed answers so, the interviewer can understand how well the machine will be efficient. The content of this message can help any business believe in what they are creating or providing. I think that this is what Steve Jobs was trying to accomplish. He wanted to ensure that his audience was in tune with what he believed in. Do you think that Steve jobs posture and tone helped with his presentation? Do you think the way he dressed also played a part of the influence of his audience? These are questions that I asked myself when analyzing the interview as this is a part of the questions needed to ask to ensure that an informative interview is being conducted. As this analysis comes to a close, I would like to go over some do’s and don’ts of informative interviews. Please pay close attention as, I learned this information from Steve Jobs (smile): Before your interview: * When requesting a meeting, explain how you got their names and what you’d like to discuss. * Send a resume. * Confirm the meeting time, and keep it to 30 minutes. During your interview: * Do NOT ask for a job. * Listen carefully, and don’t argue. * Ask for additional contact names, but do not push if the person declines to provide any. * Don’t overextend your welcome, unless the other person invites you to stay past your meeting time. After your interview: * Send a handwritten thank-you note. Keep the person posted on your progress, such as meetings with his or her contacts, where you apply, and where you are accepted. * As soon as you begin graduate business school, send an announcement to your network with your new address, the course o f study you are planning, and the type of internship you hope to obtain. In conclusion, you can gain a lot of knowledge from conducting an informative interview or information gathering interview. Steve Jobs presented a fine show as well as his interviewer because they really demonstrated how to conduct an informative interview. Hopefully, one day I will be in the spotlight to accomplish the same except, I will be in the same spot Steve Jobs was. References 1. http://www.careerbuilder.com/Article/CB-481-Getting-Ahead-How-Does-an-Informational-Interview-Work 2. http://shiftingcareers.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/01/29/mastering-the-informational-interview/ 3. http://jobsearch.about.com/cs/infointerviews/a/infointerview.htm 4. http://www.quintcareers.com/informational_interviewing.html